Fungi and especially molds cause serious problems in the field of building biology because the spores which they release into the air are often allergenic. Combating such fungi with biocides often involves an increased risk of resistance buildup so that, after a time, new antimicrobial agents have to be found to act against the now resistant microorganisms. Moreover, biocides are not always ecologically and toxicologically safe. Unwanted effects of the spread of molds include, in particular, discoloration for example on walls, jointing compounds and other bathroom surfaces which is caused by pigmented spores.
However, fungi such as, for example, the human-pathogenic Candida albicans are not destroyed at those temperatures. After a fungal infection "Ethyl cinnamate fragmentation asexual reproduction" particular, these fungi—which adhere to articles of clothing—can lead to re-infection. Accordingly, antimicrobial agents which either inhibit the growth of the fungi fungistatic agents or destroy them fungicides have hitherto been used.
The antimicrobial agents used for this purpose are often non-selective, i.
The disadvantage of this is that corresponding biocides or biostatics used, for example, in laundry detergents and cleaners pollute the wastewater and hence also functionally impair the microbial stages of wastewater treatment plants. It is known from the prior art that eugenol used in high concentrations is suitable for inhibiting the growth of fungi fungistatic effect or even for destroying the fungi fungicidal effect.
It is not mentioned in the prior art that eugenol can be used for inhibiting the asexual propagation of fungi especially sporulation. Naturally, general growth inhibition also results in the inhibition of asexual propagation, especially sporulation.
Farnesol is mentioned as a particularly preferred active component. The use of eugenol for inhibiting the asexual propagation of fungi is not mentioned in that application. Accordingly, the problem addressed by the present invention was to overcome the disadvantages of the prior art and to prevent the asexual propagation of fungi, more particularly the sporulation of molds, particularly on surfaces. Eugenol in the context of the invention is understood to be 4-allylmethoxyphenol.
Eugenol derivatives preferably include esters and ethers of eugenol which are formed by reaction with the phenolic hydroxyl group, more particularly eugenol ethers, eugenol benzoate, eugenol palmitate, eugenol cinnamate and eugenol acetate acetoeugenol.
Eugenol is particularly preferred. Esters of Ethyl cinnamate fragmentation asexual reproduction with silicic acids corresponding to formulae I and II are also suitable. Depending on the reaction time and reaction conditions, the lower alcohols are eliminated and the eugenol is bound, the alcohols along the Si—O—Si chain being exchanged more easily than the terminal alcohols.
In preferred compounds, n has a value of 1 to 15, preferably 1 to 12 and more particularly 1 to 10, the "Ethyl cinnamate fragmentation asexual reproduction" 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 being most particularly preferred. Advantageously, the fungi are neither growth-inhibited nor destroyed by the use according to the invention; their asexual propagation is merely inhibited or suppressed.
The selection pressure for the buildup of resistances is therefore minimal. Sporulation in the present context is understood to be the formation both of propagation forms, for example conidiae, gonitocysts, sporangiospores, arthrospores, blastospores and their associated organs for example conidiophoresand of permanent forms for example chlamydospores.
Since mold spores are ubiquitously present in room air, mold infestation cannot basically be prevented. However, inhibiting the sporulation of growing fungal colonies enables the risk of a mold allergy to be considerably
Ethyl cinnamate fragmentation asexual reproduction and the spread of the fungus to be completely stopped or significantly delayed.
Discoloration through sporulation is also greatly reduced or completely prevented. Thus, a comparable effect can even be achieved with a lower concentration of active component. One particular advantage
Ethyl cinnamate fragmentation asexual reproduction this embodiment is that the risk of resistance to the substances used being built up is fairly minimal because the fungi are neither destroyed nor growth-inhibited.
These minimum inhibiting concentrations may readily be determined in known manner. One particular advantage of this embodiment is that only small concentrations of these substances need be present to reduce or substantially completely prevent the asexual propagation of the fungi.
The concentrations which lead to the desired result in the end product are significantly lower than those mentioned because Ethyl cinnamate fragmentation asexual reproduction have to be taken into account for many products. For laundry detergents, a dilution factor ratio of detergent concentrate to water of 1: The dilution ratio for laundry detergents is often between 1: In the final in-use solution, concentrations of 0. For eugenol, concentrations of 0.
The lists are available on the internet at the world wide web at dsmz. Such fingi include, for example, the human-pathogenic species of the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Deuteromycota and Zygomycota classes, more particularly any species of the geni Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium and Mucorthe human-pathogenic forms of Candida and Stachybotrys, Phoma, Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Ulocladium, Epicoccum, Stemphyllium, Paecilomyces, Trichoderma, Scopulariopsis, Wallemia, Botrytis, Verticillium and Chaetonium.
The Ascomycota include in particular all species of the geni Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. These fingi form spores which have a strong allergenic potential on contact with the skin or the respiratory tract.
The Basidiomycota include, for example, Cryptococcus neoformans. The Deuteromycota include all geni known as molds, more particularly those which cannot be assigned to the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota or Zygomycota class through the absence of a sexual stage. The filter media, building materials or building auxiliaries are treated, for example, by mechanical Ethyl cinnamate fragmentation asexual reproduction or application of a suitably concentrated solution of a preparation according to the invention in or to the filter media, building materials or building auxiliaries.
Eugenol and solutions of eugenol, preferably in organic solvents, may advantageously be applied to or incorporated particularly well in such building materials or building auxiliaries. Accordingly, the building materials or building auxiliaries may be subsequently treated or already treated building materials or building auxiliaries, for example sealing compounds, may be re-charged after prolonged use by application of the preparations according to the invention.
The building materials or building auxiliaries treated in accordance with the invention are preferably selected from adhesives, sealing compounds, surfacing compounds and coating compositions, plastics, lacquers,
Ethyl cinnamate fragmentation asexual reproduction, plaster, mortar, screed, concrete, insulating materials and primers.
Sealing compounds and, more particularly, jointing compounds typically contain organic polymers and, in many cases, mineral or organic fillers and other additives. Suitable polymers are, for example, the thermoplastic elastomers described in applicants' DE-A, preferably polyurethanes and acrylates. The sealing compounds sealants or sealant mixtures preferably contain 0. In the context of the invention, sealants are materials conforming to DIN ENmore particularly those which cure plastically or elastically as sealants.
The sealants according to the invention may contain any of the additives typical of the corresponding sealing compounds, such as for example typical thickeners, reinforcing fillers, catalysts, pigments, coupling agents or other volume extenders. Even the treatment of already cured, crosslinked sealant surfaces can be carried out by applying solutions or suspensions of the substance used in accordance with the invention so that the active component is transported into the sealing compound by swelling or diffusion.
Sealants usable in accordance with the invention may be based on silicones, urethanes and acrylates. Urethane-based sealants are disclosed, for example, in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 8 th EditionChapter 4 and in U.
Systems crosslinking at room temperature, as described for example in EP 0 and U.
These systems may be single- or multi-component systems in multicomponent systems, the catalyst and crosslinking agent may be separately present, as disclosed, for example, in U. So-called silicone neutral systems, in which the reaction of crosslinking agents with the water or ambient air does not lead to corrosive, acidic, basic or odor-intensive decomposition products, are particularly preferred.
Examples of such systems are disclosed in DE 49Ethyl cinnamate fragmentation asexual reproduction U. The sealing compounds and, more particularly, jointing compounds may contain aqueous or organic solvents. Suitable organic solvents are hydrocarbons, such as cyclohexane, toluene or even xylene or petroleum ether. Other solvents are ketones, such as methylbutylketone, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The sealing compounds may also contain other rubber-like polymers, including relatively low molecular weight, commercial types of polyisobutylene, polyisoprene or even polybutadiene styrene.
Degraded natural rubber or neoprene rubber may also be used. The sealing compounds according to the invention may be used to join materials of various different kinds to one another or to seal them. However, moldings or profiles of aluminium, steel, zinc or even plastics, such as PVC or polyurethanes or acrylic resins, may also be joined or sealed.
Finally, the sealing of wood or wood materials to various other materials is also mentioned.